Steel is known to be a vital ingredient used in construction, in fact, the most robust when it comes to holding a structure. The durability and sturdiness that steel provides to a building are unmatched by concrete, wood, or bamboo.
Just like the skeleton gives a proper appearance to our body, steel helps in carving the basic framework of an edifice. Ideally, steel is mixed with concrete to offer high tensile strength for reinforcements in construction projects. What’s more, steel is highly flexible and can hence be molded into any form without changing its properties. In addition, steel can be manufactured in bulk which in turn saves time and augments efficiency in the overall construction process. Steel buildings are constructed using different frames such as modular, single slope, etc. In recent times, steel has turned out as a more favorable alternative to wood or concrete as it costs relatively less while also being widely available. Yet another marked benefit of steel is that it is environment-friendly and has the capability to resist natural disasters like an earthquake. Going by the myriad advantages that steel possesses, it is not surprising that more and more people today are opting for the use of steel in constructing their houses.
Speaking of construction, there has been a tremendous rise in construction projects across the state of Karnataka. Home to India’s IT hub, Bengaluru along with several other thriving cities including Mysore, Mangalore, Belgaum, Gulbarga, and Hubli, Karnataka is currently experiencing a boom in the infrastructure sector. The real estate prospects in Karnataka have been soaring far and wide in the last couple of years, thanks to the growing expansion of IT, mining, exports, tourism, and many other such industries. Needless to say, real estate giants and dealers in Karnataka go for the best materials—in this case, steel—to ensure the quality of their projects. Having already summarized the many benefits of steel as a construction material, let us now proceed to discuss the different types of steel used in construction across Karnataka.
- Structural Steel: Structural steel shapes are produced from steel that is molded out of precise cross-section. Meanwhile, it abides by particular standards for mechanical attributes and chemical formulae. This kind of steel can be found in numerous shapes such as L-shape, T-shape, I-beam, C-beam, rail profile, Z-shape, bar, plate, rod, open joint, or HSS shape to name a few. It is to be noted that standard structural steel varies in different countries with different specifications. To cite an instance, European I-beam follows the Euro norm 19-57, whereas, in the States, structural steel is available as corrosion-resistant, low alloy, carbon, quenched alloy, tempered alloy, high strength, and such other forms of steel. Structural steel is firm, ductile, long-lasting, and can be preferably modified into any shape depending on the style of construction. More importantly, this steel type can be put to use immediately after it reaches the construction site. Although structural steel is designed to be fire-resistant, it might need fire protection in case it gets heated up to an extent where it starts to lose its potency. To add, this steel type requires protection in regard to corrosion as well. However, there have been examples of multi-storied buildings, constructed with structural steel, that have been able to withstand various mishaps.
- Mild/Plain Carbon Steel: This is the kind of steel that is most frequently used for building construction, the reason being its outstandingly durable and sturdy quality. Mild steel does not crack when bent owing to its immense elasticity resulting in the fact it can suitably hold up against major calamities like earthquake. With plain carbon steel at its base, a house is seldom prone to damage or collapsing even in a dire situation. Mild steel typically comprises an approximate of 0.05%-0.25% carbon, along with two yield points. Low carbon steel is expedient to manage as it has two yield points, wherein the first yield point goes slightly higher than the second point. Into the bargain, mild steel has a density of 7.85 g/cm. Due to its capacity to weld, this steel type is superior in robustness than any other kind. The only downside to plain carbon steel is that it is not fire-resistant and thus demands precaution in this matter.
- Rebar Steel: Generally known as reinforcing steel, this steel type is used as a tension mechanism for reinforced masonry framework. It is made out of carbon steel and bears ridges so it can better anchor in the concrete; rebar steel grips the concrete in a compressed state. It comes in various types of grades, differing in specifications in terms of tensile strength, chemical proportions, yielding level, and elongation percentage. It is one of the most common among the many different types of steel used in construction in Karnataka.Rebar steel delivers permanence and aesthetic resistance apart from stiffness that pervades a large area, a feature unlikely to be discerned in most other kinds of steel. Furthermore, it has great expansion capability and is available in a plethora of sizes based on the country and construction. With its potential for recycling, rebar steel proves to be extremely favorable. The specifications and grades bring about varieties of rebar itself, for example, plain steel wire is used for concrete reinforcement. Similarly, there are epoxy-coated steel bars used for reinforcement, alongside zinc-coated bars, stainless steel, welded deformed steel, axel steel, chromium, low carbon steel bars, and so on.
In the past, steel has been used globally for constructing some of the most celebrated architectural marvels such as Empire State Building, Burj Khalifa, Brooklyn Bridge, Beijing National Stadium, Taipei 101 Tower etc. and it does not seem to have lost its magic even at present. With steel-based construction on the rise worldwide, there is no doubt that it is soon going to take over the entire construction arena.